PASCO HERNANDO COMMUNITY COLLEGE
WESTERN CIVILIZATION (EUH 1000) CLASS NOTES
. Instructor: Dave Tamm / Term: Spring 2008 .
THE SMALL KINGDOMS (Pg. 30-50)
THE AGE OF EMPIRES: The first 'Age of Empires,' in point of fact, as empires have been the most common form of political organization throughout history. These ancient ones: Akkadian, Babylonian, Hittite, New Kingdom Egyptian, Assyrian, New Babylonian and Persian, set a powerful trend. This first age of empires is sometimes called the 'international bronze age', as bronze weapons and tools were used throughout the Near East. The empires battled each other at times, and also used these metals to rule subject peoples.
Small states big ideas
egyptians important cause they remembered, not what they did
hebrews different, because of what they did. because of what they
the western intellectual tradition. not strong politcally, but
a gap: 1200 - 700 BC is a quiet period- sea peoples came, PHILISTINES,
but did not leave any durable impact. raided and invaded.
but PHOENICIANS did. they could emerge cause for a moment, their
great and powerful neighbors were much weakened. actually they
were canaanites. why? cause they exported purple dye made of shellfish
, and they were called poine, the purple people! Merchants of the
200 years after the bronze age came to a close, they were flourishing.
tyre sidon byblos, beirut. very important cities. planted trading
all over the mediterranean starting 900 bc. first great commercial
empire. one stimulus, the search for metal ores.
like later athenians, venicians, dutch. not conquered enormous
territory, but what they did was as valuable.
they created glass, traded ivory, and solomons temple was built of
the famous ceder trees.
carthage... marsaille... iberia... southern italy, sicily...
stitching the world
together, one cultural basin, spreading ideas from mesopotamia etc. all
over the place. Carthage (New City) is in a wonderful harbor. twin
the civilization of phoenicia itself at the top of an outcropping.
levant and gibraltar. their gods like Baal were widely worshipped.
sacraficed their first born son as an offering to Baal. or to save
the city or family.
you die so the rest of us can live. heroism or lunacy, or both.
faith. belief. Astarte
was the goddess of sacred prostitution. a priestess and males
it was a symbol of the fertility of Astarte.
circumnavigated africa, not matched for 2000 years until europeans
set out again in the age of exploration.
but its the alphabet we remember. each letter represented a single
this alphabet could be used to record and reproduce the sounds of ANY
it spread around the mediterranean, and the greeks and romans took
it, roman became latin, and it became the source of all the
alpahabets of the west. they invented reading, because its way easier
to do that than memorize a thousand symbols. Alphabet is
written in straight lines because it was easier to make that in clay!
they circumnavigated africa in 600s... reached britannia 450... amazing.
nice gap! hittites and egyptians decline... assyrians etc. not yet
They are the only ancient peoples still around. one does not meet
Hittites in the street. absorbed a lot from Mesoptoamia and egypt.
flood story, creation story... one massive contribution, ethical
monotheism. the world was already “old” when they arrive!
most read book in the world. all time bestseller. the book gutenberg
not powerful, not economics, not politics, deplomacy... but because
of religious ideal.
we know a lot but there is a lot we dont know. Ur of the Chaldees is
pastoralist - abraham moved to a place God gave them... when? 1700
the dynastic period of Ur in Ur.
did not come unified. settled in small bands. names of large numbers of
families in Bible. struggled with others, none of whom was strong enough
to conquer them, and not so weak that they could be conquered.
stories now about bondage. during hittite vs egypt, many hebrews pulled
away into egypt. or some came on their own cause of egyptian prosperity.
NKE empire- reduced the hebrews to bondage. but some (like Joseph) had
a good life then. Habiru lived in the land of Goshen, in the NE of
Hebrew: outsiders used it, Bene Yisroel, “people (children) of israel”
Moses 1220 forged his people into one. 100 or 200 years previous,
egypt was too
strong. unthinkable. but now it was weakened, about 1200. Exodus.
egypt, wandered after 40 years and got to the promised land. Joshua
wins battle of jericho. disunified. Hebrews settled in Canaan, where
the Sea Peoples
had destroyed many cities and wrecked the local populations around
ark of the covenant, tribal government, 12 tribes.
JUDGES notables who were responsible for order, military leaders.
unified by a common enemy- the Philistines and others. Saul, David,
Solomon. small unified kingdom broke into two, Israel and Judah
(Samarra and Jerusalem) that for centuries struggled with each other
and within themselves.
Gradually powerful neighbors arose and the hebrews failed to take
enough note of it. 700s the Assyrians destroyed the north, Israel.
ten lost tribes. New Babylonians then.
CAPTIVITY: development of morals, predicted by prophets, keeping law,
So a people: not united, not strong, not numerous, momentarily
significant, (unlike phoenicians)... but perhaps more important than
their imprint? large rich complex writings: the Hebrew Bible. Old
series of reveal insights from 1700 and abraham to 200, the roman
of the mediterranean world. especially 1000-500, the unified kingdom
Assyria scattered the ten tribes of Israel
Nebuchadnezzer took Judah into captivity, and ezekiel and jeremiah
it was God’s punishment. But the Hebrews survived.
God is eternal, the creator of the universe, and invisible. An
God is above nature, not part of it. no place for a sun god or moon
demystified. not super natural, but natural. God’s handiwork, or
the Individual. monotheism helped develop the idea of the Self, or
the I. the individual
was conscious of his own worth. god is omnipotent but also just and
beings can fulfill his morality by freely making choices, not by
being slaves to the God, not by being controlled by God.
God cannot be represented.
God is higher than kings or generals, so give no ultimate loyalty to
them, only to God
Hebrews were free- but free with one condition, that you volunteered
to be moral.
Hebrews were not preoccupied with understanding God, or proving his
but to know God, to be righteous, merciful and just. to be Godly. All
Jews “Equal” before God.
E, J, D, P strains in the Bible.
3 kinds of material:
1. First 5 are the torah. GENESIS, EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS AND
DEUTERONOMY. the teaching. teach what? 1. tells about
the relationship of the hebrews with their God, and how they got
their land, and
laws. like hammurabi. not purely ethical statements, just law lists.
the Prophets. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel yet, but before that the
of kings... showing how when they keep the commandments the hebrews are
successful. creating a vision of the past, but also the vision of the
prophests, amos etc. great theoriticians of the historical material.
“you see, they
did well and things were good when the covanement was kept”
The writings: proverbs, wisdom, sayings, guide on how to do things.
tell a story cohecively. how to live well = not how to “be happy” but
keep the laws of God. the favor of God.
We must understand what it meant then, in the many thens after then,
The covanent. Between God and a tribal leader. the tribe was abrahams
the covanent is renewed between God and Moses, for the people forged
exodus. “Now therefore if you will hear unto my voice indeed, and
keep my covanent, then ye shall be Mine own treasure among all
peoples, and be unto me a kingdom of priests, a holy nation.” So,
there is a moral imperative.
covanent renewed with Ezra, understood as (in exile) as the people under
whatever place they live. insofar as they are in exile, the covanent
is with them.
idea is a reciprocal relationship between God and the people. psalms.
like them in anything from the religious traditions of others. “why
oh why have you
forsaken me!” We made a deal! pay off! So different from
mesoptoamia... “please gods dont let the tigris overflow this
year”... no reciprocity. a deal.
next: the idea of a uniquely chosen people. in meso you always added
divinities all around the middle east, but this was ONE GOD for one
people. more mature reflections
of the nature of that God. In early books, you get hints of
monotheism, but we also have plural gods. Like... when Moses goes up
on Mt. Sinai...
First Commandment: have no OTHER gods before me (strangers’ gods..
not that the others dont exist!)
Henotheism: you worship a god but dont deny there are others are
there. this is it. By Isiah, we have One God only. No others.
Covananet was between God and Abraham. then God and the people
reforged by moses. then between the torah and the people. In Jonah,
who had been told to preach in Nineveh. He tries to flee and takes a
phoenician boat and out in the mediterranean, and a whale eats him
and spits him out on a beach and God says, “I thought I told you to
go to Nineveh!” A story... meaning do a daunting thing. and he was
going to NINEVEH... is this universalism? can the Jews spread Judaism
to everyone or is Israel to be chosen alone forever- and the rest of
humanity consigned to godlessness?
ethical monotheism- profound social justice runs through the books,
not preasant in mesopotamia. not much in egypt. so it is
unprecedented. the fundamental demand of a particular kind of
behavior in exchange for his benevolence. not how just to honor god,
but also each other. dont lie steal cheat covet etc.
History: the hebrews are the first to have a sense of history and a
history has a purpose and meaning.
Finally: Western Literature. It is inconcievable without the Bible.
NAMES OF GOD- EL HEBREW
Also traders like phoenicians, but on land. camal caravans. socially
traders not fighters, decentralized. aramean language became the most
second language like english today.
EUH 1000 Main Next: Classical Greece