An Introduction to International Relations





Pasco-Hernando Community College



Chapter 10 is the main focus of the final.

The Big 5: Terrorism, Environment, Gender, Sovereignty, Statehood.

Here is a review for the final, which is on Tuesday April 28. The review


handed out in class showed the links individually, so here are all of them


on one page for convenience:


Each of these has consequences for the core problems in IR:

                        war / peace, conflict / cooperation, wealth / poverty.


TERRORISM (Groups pg. 252)


-The unlawful use of violence or threat of violence against civilians.

Used for political, religious or similar objectives.


Unresolved:     If terrorism is different than other political violence

               If state-sponsored terrorism within its own territory is

               Nature of a 'civilian'… maybe 'non combatant' is better


Used often in weak states, in political transitions like in Colombia,

Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Used very often by and in failed

states, mostly in Africa, in permanent civil war. Used against the

state in the 1st World: USA (NYC) Britain (London), Spain (Madrid),

Japan (Tokyo- a cult bombed the subway there).


1950s – not much terrorism

1960s -1970s – scattered airplane hijackings

1980s – Muslim groups attack American targets in Lebanon, Iran, Somalia…

1990s – today - increase after Cold War


Is Islamic terrorism different? Mafia is organized crime, drug cartels

too, why the focus on radical Islam? Its presentation of an

existential threat is not great, but is there.

- Other belief-systems do not harbor embittered anti-Western focus to

the same degree.

- Complex and open societies are especially vulnerable, lo-tech bombs

can be used

- People with relatively 'normal' backgrounds in the middle class were

responsible in UK

- Recruiting ground for terror using groups is not limited to the poor

or to the Middle East

- US led Iraq War's 'blowback effect' may increase resentment and

engender terrorism

- Possibility of terrorists using a WMD on a city or society (pg. 254)


A Realist 911? Was the Realist view (of the Bush Administration in

2000-01) partly responsible for lack of preparation? Ss. C. Rice is

'state-centric' in her IR thinking. "Her preferred means are military

(realist), clear division in her mind about the national and

international realms." Realists tend to focus on state-state activity

and 'territorialize' it.


Liberal view appreciates non-state actors. Emphasize international

cooperation and not unilateralism. "Best weapon against terror is

cooperative government agencies".





A growing number of earthlings in the Western world believe that Earth

itself is degrading in its habitability for humanity, and that less

action on the part of earthlings to stop it, could 'runaway' into a

state of unsuitability for all or many inhabitants.


Why now? Global population, food shortages in the 3rd World (which

lead to over-exploitation of land, ie: deforestation,

desertification), pesticides, acid rain and air pollution, water

usage, energy consumption and all that is without global warming



The 'victory' over CFCs is seen by 'modernists' as proof we can 'do

it' through advancing science and technology. (Modernists vs.

Ecoradicals pg. 258).


'Ecoradicals' think the ecosystem of Earth has a limited carrying

capacity, like every other ecosystem ever encountered. Strict controls

on population, changes in modern lifestyles (less consumption,

renewable energy, recycling), are encouraged.


Problem for IR? Environmental troubles = greater international

conflict. Lack of water resources in the Middle East already spells

trouble. Arab-Israeli problem exacerbates it:


     Syria                    Jordan

-----------------------------------------  they all share the Jordan

River. Arab League in 60s

  Lebanon              Israel          tried to divert the water from Israel

(which helped

                                       cause the 1967 War. 40% of Israel's water today

                                       comes from land won in that war.

Is water going to be an issue in the Middle East peace process? The

Arab-Israeli 'war'?


IR finds environmental problems to be intrastate as well as

interstate. Intrastate? Stresses lead to migration from rural to

urban, urban chaos and degradation, less social cement, authoritarian

regimes. Do we see this already?


Realist stance lessens the interstate character of the debate. In some

way grounded in the Judeo-Christian view: "And God said… let them have

dominion over…"


Liberal stance is for cooperation between states due to the threat to

the 'global commons' by this issue: the seas, the ozone, climate, etc.

Only global cooperation can face down this problem.


IPE says that wealth in the global economy should be more equitable so

that people in stressed areas do not over-stress them further.



Where does gender converge with international relations? In the debate

about basic inequality between men and women in societies all around

the world.


What is gender? Socially learned behavior expectations that

distinguish between masculinity and femininity (rationality, activity,

strength vs. emotionality, passivity and weakness).


Men own 99% of the world’s property, women 1%.

95% of presidents and cabinet members are men, 5% women.

Women put in 60% of the world’s working hours, and get for it 10% of its income.

60% of illiterate people in the world are women.

80% of the world’s refugees are women and the children they take care about.


Biological difference or social and learned difference? Nature or nurture?


Pg. 262

Much of work done by men is visible and paid, much by women invisible

and unpaid.

Low-paid work in “export-processing zones” of 3rd World

Sex-slavery and prostitution

Domestic labor



Exploring nature and conquering mother nature’s territory - is seen as

a type of exploitation that is merged with justification for

exploiting human mothers. Men who want to “protect from the

‘outside’”, also protects the exploitation of the domestic situation.


Though women have positions in government, war is still seen as a

man’s game: the “just warriors” vs women as “beautiful souls” who

should be saved from war.


Women’s inequality is seen as promotion of population growth, as women

in countries of the 3rd World who have little knowledge of

contraceptives, no education and are in poverty- tend to have many

children- Paul Kennedy says the entire future of the 21st century is

based on women’s mass education in less developed countries.


Feminist ideologies in IR


liberal feminism says “natural rights of life, liberty and property

have not been extended in equal measure to women (ie: Mary



marxist feminism says “capitalist system needs to be overthrown in

order to achieve equality between men and women- cause patriarchy and

capitalism go together.”


radical feminism says “subordinate IR to gender analysis and end to

inequality”. All violent conflict scenarios, security concepts, power

paradigms and sovereignty must be reevaluated in the light of male

oppression of women. Violence is not only between nations or groups,

but against women. The structural violence against women must be



SOVEREIGNTY AND FUTURE OF WAR - definitions box on 271

Is sovereignty of nations inviolable? Realists tend to think so, but

maybe times change? The whole idea of independence is under assault

from below and above: below by anti-state / tribal forces inside of

nation-states, and from above through nation-states merging into

larger configurations like the European Union.


Additionally, the ““global market,” or “global capitalism”, or “global

economy” have ripped national communities apart by going beyond

borders, mass immigration of peoples across traditional national

boundaries, and communication system, terrorism and the drug trade all

violate sovereignty, human rights, along with growing crime rates all

around the world.


UN says “time for sovereignty is ended- all nations must become one”.


Private security firms erode sovereignty of the state to monopolize

violence within their own territories. Sovereignty vs. trans-national

and world government.


Failed states, religious trans-state territories (like the Islamic

Umma) and super-states


The 4th Generation of Warfare: A global problem.