Space Program of Togo
------The Togoan Space Agency------
Level = 0 Development: Very Low
What has been going on in Togo?
What kind of space power do they have?
Does Togo have space weapons?
What are they planning over there?
Population: 6,200,000 / Language: French / GDP: $1700 / Cities: Lome
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Togo, a narrow strip of land on Africa's west coast, has for years been the target of criticism over its human rights record and political governance.
Tensions spilled over into deadly violence when its strong-arm, veteran leader died in 2005 and a succession crisis followed. Political reconciliation remains elusive.
Togo formed part of the Slave Coast, from where captives were shipped abroad by European slavers during the 17th century. In 1884 it became the German protectorate of Togoland.
Politics: President Faure Gnassingbe succeeded his father in a manner condemned internationally. The opposition and government have agreed to form a government of national unity
Economy: Togo is among the world's poorest countries. Isolation has further aggravated its weak economy
International: Togo faces international pressure to hold credible parliamentary elections and improve its human rights record. Thousands who fled 2005 election violence remain in BeninIt was seized by Britain and France at the start of World War I, divided and administered under League of Nations mandates.
The British-ruled western part was later incorporated into what is now Ghana.
France granted independence in 1960 and Togo's first president, Sylvanus Olympio, was assassinated in a military coup three years later. Head of the armed forces Gnassingbe Eyadema seized power in a 1967 coup and dissolved all political parties.
Although political parties were legalised in 1991 and a democratic constitution was adopted in 1992, the leadership was accused of suppressing opposition and of cheating in elections.
A joint UN-Organisation of African Unity investigation into claims that hundreds of people were killed after controversial elections in 1998 concluded that there had been systematic human rights violations.
Gnassingbe Eyadema died in early 2005 after 38 years in power. The military's immediate but short-lived installation of his son, Faure Gnassingbe, as president provoked widespread international condemnation. Mr Faure stood down and called elections which he won two months later. The opposition said the vote was rigged.
The developments of 2005 led to renewed questions about a commitment to democracy made by Togo in 2004 in a bid to normalise ties with the EU, which cut off aid in 1993 over the country's human rights record.
Moreover, up to 500 people were killed in the political violence surrounding the presidential poll, according to the UN. Around 40,000 Togolese fled to neighbouring countries.
Full name: Togolese Republic
President: Faure Gnassingbe
Faure Gnassingbe, the son of Togo's late veteran leader Gnassingbe Eyadema, won presidential elections in April 2005, gaining 60% of the votes.
The poll was followed by street violence in the capital involving security forces and opposition supporters, who said the election had been rigged.
Togo's Space Infrastructure
Togo is troubled by poverty and hunger, and its space program is not suprisingly, nonexistent. Not only does it not have an agency, but also not much of an infrastructure in which one would arise. Togo's University of Lome offers a degree in physics but nothing specific to space related educational architecture, such as astrophysics, astronomy, astronautics or aeronautics. The government has no ministry devoted to science of this type.
Togo has no history of being part of any organization dealing with space, nor has any launch capability.
Togo lacks the industrial base, the educational base and the political foundation for a process like this to occur within it. It has no functioning university with an astrophysics or astronautics program, and marginal industry.
Togo operates no satellites and, not having an orbital presence, has no space power.
The government of Togo in Kampala has no plans for attempting to further any ambition in space development or research.
Timeline of Events in Togo
...From the Past to the Future
15-17th centuries - Ewe clans from Nigeria and the Ane from Ghana and Ivory Coast settle in region already occupied by Kwa and Voltaic peoples.
Gnassingbe Eyadema ruled unchallenged for decades
1700s - Coastal area occupied by Danes.
1884 - German protectorate of Togoland established, forced labour used to develop plantations.
1914 - British, French forces seize Togoland.
1922 - League of Nations issues mandates to Britain to administer the western part and to France to rule the eastern area of Togoland.
1956 - British-ruled western territory included into the Gold Coast, later renamed Ghana.
1960 - Independence.
1961 - Sylvanus Olympio elected as first president.
1963 - Olympio assassinated, replaced by Nicolas Grunitzky.
1967 - Gnassingbe Eyadema seizes power in bloodless coup, political parties dissolved.
1974 - Phosphate industry nationalised.
1979 - Eyadema, standing as sole candidate, elected as president in first parliamentary polls since 1967, under constitution entrenching civilian, one-party rule.
1985 - Series of bombings in Lome.
1985 - Coup attempt, French troops come to government's assistance. Togo accuses Ghana and Burkina Faso of involvement. Togo's frontier with Ghana shut until 1987.
Opposition's Gilchrist Olympio, the son of Togo's first president
Profile: Togo's vendetta victim
1986 - Eyadema re-elected.
1991 - Strikes, demonstrations. Eyadema agrees to split power with transitional adminstration pending elections.
1992 - New constitution approved.
1993 - Eyadema dissolves government, sparking protests and fatal clashes with police. Thousands flee to neighbouring states.
1993 - France, Germany, US suspend aid to press for democratic reforms.
1998 - Eyadema re-elected.
2000 March - UN report alleges that presidents Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso and Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo helped the Angolan rebel group Unita get arms and fuel in exchange for diamonds. Both countries deny the accusations.
2000 June - UN-OAU begins inquiry into Amnesty International allegations that the country's armed forces summarily executed hundreds of people during the run-up to the presidential election in 1998.
2001 February - International inquiry into allegations of summary executions and torture in Togo concludes there were systematic violations of human rights after 1998 presidential election.
2001 August - Opposition leader Yawovi Agboyibo is jailed for six months for libelling the prime minister. Demonstrators take to the streets.
2002 March - Eyadema frees opposition leader Yawovi Agboyibo as a gesture of "appeasement".
2002 June - Eyadema sacks his prime minister and ally Agbeyome Kodjo and says the action is in preparation for parliamentary elections. Kodjo lambasts the president and accuses his aides of corruption and human rights abuses.
2002 October - Ruling party wins parliamentary elections. Main opposition parties stage boycott in protest at way poll was organised.
2002 December - Parliament alters the constitution, removing a clause which would have barred President Eyadema from seeking a third term in 2003.
2003 June - Eyadema re-elected. Prime Minister Koffi Sama and his government resign.
2003 July - President Eyadema reinstates Koffi Sama as prime minister. A unity government is announced but the main opposition parties are not included.
2003 September - Togo sends 150 soldiers to Liberia to bolster a West African peacekeeping force.
2004 November - European Union restores partial diplomatic relations. Ties were broken in 1993 over violence and democratic shortcomings.
2005 February - President Gnassingbe Eyadema dies, aged 69. The military appoints his son Faure as president in a move condemned as a coup. Under international pressure Faure stands down and agrees to hold presidential elections.
2005 April - Faure Gnassingbe wins presidential elections which the opposition condemns as rigged. The vote is followed by deadly street violence between rival supporters. The UN later estimates that 400-500 people were killed.
2005 June - President Gnassingbe names opposition's Edem Kodjo as prime minister.
2006 April - Reconciliation talks between government and opposition resume. Dialogue was abandoned after Gnassingbe Eyadema's death in 2005.
2006 August - Government and opposition sign an accord providing for the participation of opposition parties in a transitional government.
2006 September - Yawovi Agboyibo, veteran leader of the opposition Committee of Action for Renewal, is named prime minister and tasked with forming a unity government and organising polls.
TODAY AND INTO THE FUTURE