Space Program of Haiti

Level = 0                                         Development: Very Low


Country Overview

What has been going on in Haiti?



Space Agency and its Activity

What kind of space power do they have?



Weapons and Power Projection

Does Haiti have space weapons?



Timeline and the Future

What are they planning over there?

Population: 8,600,000 / Language: French / GDP: $1600 / Cities: Port-au-Prince

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 The world's first black-led republic and the first Caribbean state to achieve independence, Haiti's pride has been dented by decades of poverty, environmental degradation, violence, instability and dictatorship which have left it as the poorest nation in the Americas.

A mostly mountainous country with a tropical climate, Haiti's location, history and culture - epitomised by voodoo, with its music, drumming and dancing - once made it a potential tourist hot spot. Instability and violence, especially since the 1980s, have all but killed off this prospect.

Haiti achieved notoriety during the brutal dictatorships of the voodoo physician, Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, and his son, Jean-Claude, or "Baby Doc". Hopes that the election in 1990 of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a former priest, would herald a brighter future were dashed when he was overthrown by the military a short time later.

  • Politics: Democratic rule was restored in 2006, two years after a violent revolt ousted former leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide; bitter political divisions persist
  • Economy: Haiti's economy is in ruins and there is chronic unemployment
  • International: The UN has deployed peacekeepers; international aid is seen as key to recovery
Although economic sanctions and US-led military intervention forced a return to constitutional government in 1994, Haiti's fortunes did not pick up, with allegations of electoral irregularities, ongoing extra-judicial killings, torture and brutality.

A bloody rebellion, and pressure from the US and France, forced Mr Aristide out of the country in 2004. Since then, an elected leadership has taken over from an interim government and a UN stabilisation force has been deployed. But Haiti is still plagued by violent confrontations between rival gangs and political groups and the UN has described the human rights situation as "catastrophic".

Meanwhile, Haiti's most serious underlying social problem, the huge wealth gap between the impoverished Creole-speaking black majority and the French-speaking mulattos, 1% of whom own nearly half the country's wealth, remains unaddressed. Furthermore, the infrastructure has all but collapsed and drug trafficking has corrupted the judicial system and the police.

Haiti is ill-equipped to deal with the aftermath of tropical storms. Severe deforestation has left it particularly vulnerable to flooding.

 Full name: Republic of Haiti

  • Population: 8.5 million (UN, 2005)
  • Capital: Port-au-Prince
  • Area: 27,750 sq km (10,714 sq miles)
  • Major languages: Creole, French
  • Major religion: Christianity
  • Life expectancy: 51 years (men), 52 years (women) (UN)
  • Monetary unit: 1 gourde = 100 centimes
  • Main exports: Light manufactures, coffee, oils, mangoes
  • GNI per capita: US $450 (World Bank, 2006)
  • Internet domain: .ht
  • International dialling code: +509


President: Rene Preval

Rene Preval, often described as a champion of the poor, won presidential elections in February 2006 with 51% of the vote. He was declared the victor after officials agreed to discount thousands of blank ballot papers. His supporters had taken to the streets, rejecting initial results which would have led to a second round.

Mr Preval, the front-runner, said "massive fraud" was being used to deny him a first-round victory.

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 Haiti's Space Infrastructure

Haiti is one of the world's poorest countries, despite being independent for over 200 years, second only to the United States amongst the Western lands. Not only does it not have an agency, but also no infrastructure in which one would arise. The University of Haiti does not offer astrophysics, astronautics or aeronautics, while the government has no ministry devoted to science of this type.

Haiti has no history of being part of any organization dealing with space, nor has any launch capability.

Haiti lacks the industrial base, the educational base and the political foundation for a process like this to occur within it.

Haiti operates no satellites and, not having a presence, has no space power.

The government of Haiti in Port-au-Prince has no plans for attempting to further any ambition in space development or research.

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Timeline of Events in Haiti

...From the Past to the Future

  1492 - Christopher Columbus lands and names the island Hispaniola, or Little Spain.

Poverty and desperation have fuelled an exodus

1496 - Spanish establish first European settlement in western hemisphere at Santo Domingo, now capital of Dominican Republic.

1697 - Spain cedes western part of Hispaniola to France, and this becomes Haiti, or Land of Mountains.

1801 - A former black slave who became a guerrilla leader, Toussaint Louverture, conquers Haiti, abolishing slavery and proclaiming himself governor-general of an autonomous government over all Hispaniola.

1802 - French force led by Napoleon's brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, fails to conquer Haitian interior.


1804 - Haiti becomes independent; former slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares himself emperor.

More than 90% of Haitians are said to practice voodoo

1806 - Dessalines assassinated and Haiti divided into a black-controlled north and a mulatto-ruled south

1818-43 - Pierre Boyer unifies Haiti, but excludes blacks from power.

1915 - US invades Haiti following black-mulatto friction, which it thought endangered its property and investments in the country.

1934 - US withdraws troops from Haiti, but maintains fiscal control until 1947.

Duvalier dictatorships

1956 - Voodoo physician Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier seizes power in military coup and is elected president a year later.

"Baby Doc" Duvalier retained his father's brutal methods

  • Born in 1951
  • Succeeded "Papa Doc" in 1971
  • Fled to France in 1986

1964 - Duvalier declares himself president-for-life and establishes a dictatorship with the help of the Tontons Macoute militia.

1971 - Duvalier dies and is succeeded by his 19-year-old son, Jean-Claude, or "Baby Doc", who also declares himself president-for-life.

1986 - Baby Doc flees Haiti in the wake of mounting popular discontent and is replaced by Lieutenant-General Henri Namphy as head of a governing council.

1988 - Leslie Manigat becomes president, but is ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Prosper Avril, who installs a civilian government under military control.

Democracy, coup and intervention

1990 - Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected president.

1991 - Aristide ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Raoul Cedras, triggering sanctions by the US and the Organisation of American States.

1993 - UN imposes sanctions after the military regime rejects an accord facilitating Aristide's return.

1994 - Military regime relinquishes power in the face of an imminent US invasion; US forces oversee a transition to a civilian government; Aristide returns.

Former president Aristide lives in exile

1995 - UN peacekeepers begin to replace US troops; Aristide supporters win parliamentary elections; Rene Preval elected in December to replace Aristide as president.

1996 - Preval sworn in as president.

1997-99 - Serious political deadlock; new government named.

1999 - Preval declares that parliament's term has expired and begins ruling by decree following a series of disagreements with deputies.

Aristide's second term

2000 November - Aristide elected president for a second non-consecutive term, amid allegations of irregularities.

2001 July - Presidential spokesman accuses former army officers of trying to overthrow the government after armed men attack three locations, killing four police officers.

2001 December - 30 armed men try to seize the National Palace in an apparent coup attempt; 12 people are killed in the raid, which the government blames on former army members.

2002 July - Haiti is approved as a full member of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) trade bloc.

2003 April - Voodoo recognised as a religion, on a par with other faiths.

UN force was sent to help stabilise Haiti

  • UN authorised despatch of 6,700 soldiers, 1,600 police
  • Mandate set to expire in June 2005
  • Peacekeepers led by Brazil

2004 January-February - Celebrations marking 200 years of independence are marred by violent uprising against President Aristide. Rebels seize towns and cities; dozens are killed. Mr Aristide is forced into exile; an interim government takes over.

2004 May - Severe floods in south, and in parts of neighbouring Dominican Republic, leave more than 2,000 dead or disappeared.

2004 June - First UN peacekeepers arrive, to take over security duties from US-led force and to help flood survivors.

2004 July - International donors pledge more than $1bn in aid.

2004 September - Nearly 3,000 killed in flooding in the north, in the wake of tropical storm Jeanne.

late 2004 - Rising levels of deadly political and gang violence in the capital; armed gangs loyal to former President Aristide are said to be responsible for many killings.

2005 April - Prominent rebel leader Ravix Remissainthe is killed by police in the capital.

2005 July - Hurricane Dennis kills at least 45 people.

Preval wins elections

2006 February - General elections, the first since former President Aristide was overthrown in 2004. Rene Preval is declared the winner of the presidential vote after a deal is reached over spoiled ballot papers.

2006 June - A democratically-elected government headed by Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis takes office.

2006 September - Launch of a UN-run scheme to disarm gang members in return for grants, job training.

2006 October - US partially lifts an arms embargo, imposed in 1991.




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