The Grand Canal was finished in the postclassical period (Sui-Tang-Song, 600-1200)




 Agricultural land like these rice paddies was re-distributed by the government in the Equal-Field System

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equal-field_system. Soon fast-ripening rice would affect Chinese economics.




The bureaucracy of merit idea meant that many took the civil service exam to try and get a job

The imperial exam was founded by the Sui in 605: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_examination

The Mongols would abolish it in the 1300s but it would return under the Ming and Qing until recent times.




The kowtow performed before the imperial Chinese court




The Khitan people use eagles to help in hunting during the Song Dynasty




China's local barbarians: Khitans, Jurchens and Manchus

Goryeo (Korea) - Khitan War: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khitan_people




Jurchen armor- all three lived north of Song China: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurchen_people




Urbanization: Chang'an had 2 million people... biggest city in the world during the postclassical period





Guangzhou (Canton) had restaurants, taverns, noodle shops, tea houses, brothels, gardens, music shops and more

Li Bai's urban poems were read and played out here as a favorite form of literary engagement during the Tang-Song.




Foot binding, a sign of patriarchal society in China, mostly affected aristocratic women




Earliest written formula for gunpowder, from the 1000s AD in China:





Song wooden blocks used to print copies of text




Buddhist caves in Dunhuang: Song era Confucians like Buddhism- darma is translated as 'dao'!




Zen Buddhism is characterized by medidation, flashes of insight, but was persecuted by Daoist





Korea is in 'the middle' of the East Asian powers, China and Japan




The Bulguksa Temple in Korea completed by the Silla in 774




The Seokgatap monument at the temple




Blue Cloud and White Cloud Bridges are in the foreground, the Lotus Flower and Seven Treasures Bridges are in the background.




A scene from Lady Murasaki's Tale of the Genji




Bushido Code of the Samurai




The first capital of Japan (700s), Nara




The Todaiji temple (Buddhist) in Nara, Japan: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historic_Monuments_of_Ancient_Nara




The Heian Period succeeded the Nara, and the capital was moved here, to Kyoto




The Battle of DanNoUra, in 1185, which sealed the fate for the Samurai Heike clan, who were defeated by the Genji




The interesting Heike Crab which appeared over time after the battle





An ancient stele containing Sanskrit writing is the only existant one dealing with the Funan Kingdom (6th century Indochina)




The Funan state was located on the Mekong River in today's Vietnam




The Srivajaya kingdom based on Sumatra (Indonesia) controlled the Indies from the 7th to the 13th centuries

It was eclipsed by Chola India but its legacy can be seen in Buddhist architecture in places like Thailand and Malaysia




The Malaccan Empire resulted from Islamic expansion to Srivajaya, this is the Sultan's residence

Zheng He's fleet stopped here as well in the early 15th century




The Angkor Wat Buddhist temple located in today's Cambodia is the centerpiece of the ancient Angkor culture

The Khmer Empire's capital, it lasted from 800-1431 before declining because of religious problems and an

inability to further control the water irrigation system (meaning floods were more frequent), as well as the Plague




The famous serene faces of Angkor Wat show Buddhist harmony with life




The Khmer Empire was rival to the Srivajaya, its religions were Hinduism, Buddhism

It covered Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam and parts of Malaysia before being reclaimed by the jungle




Post-Gupta India


Signal of Harsha's decline: Abbasid castle complex built after the conquest of the Sind at Hyderabad




Mahmud of Ghazni holding court in India after looting Punjab and destroying Hindu temples

Islamic expansion in the postclassical period went east into India and China, south to Africa (Axum) and north to Byzantium

In all, 25% of India would covert to Islam




The Delhi Sultanate kept India free from the Mongols in the 1200s but was later taken by the Afghan Moguls




A professional does a SPRITE chart for the Delhi Sultanate:





Hinduism developed energetically after the Islamic incursion into north India, and Buddhism declined in India

Here Vishnu (left) and Siva gained more roles, and cults developed around both of them, while Shankara harmonized Hinduism

and Ramanuja taught union with Vishnu was possible. Nevertheless, many lower caste people converted to Islam during the Sultanate

Guru Kabir even taught that Vishnu, Siva and Allah as the same deity, and the Bhakti movement stressed Muslim-Hindu unity




India's Chola Dynasty ruled the southern part of the subcontinent while the Delhi Sultanate ruled the north




Siva Idol at Brihadeeswara Temple




Trichanopoly as it was called by the British, is a temple complex in southern India build by the Cholas




Mystical India's tradition lives on today in the Rockfort (Ucchi Pillayar)

a temple built on an outcropping of rock 3 billion years old




The Krishna Temple built in the 1300s was the centerpiece of India's Vijayanagar (Hampi) dynasty-

the largest, wealthiest and most powerful Hindu Kingdom in southern India following the Cholas




Pampapati Temple nearby- original Hindu architecture from before the conquest by the Moghuls




Today Vijayanagar (City of Victory) is mostly a ruin




NASA recognizes India's central Deccan Plateau as one of the amazing geological landforms in the world





Indian boys having fun in the Monsoon season




During the postclassical age in the Indian Ocean, Arabic Dhows like these had to negociate the Monsoons




Calicut, India became a major hub of the Indian Ocean trade linking China and the Indies with India, Persia, Arabia and Africa

In this emporium could be found cotton textiles, refined sugar, tanned products and high carbon steel




Chinese Junks could be found on the Indian Ocean as well, carrying 1000 tons




Trade routes during the heyday of the postclassical Indian Ocean trade




Today the Indian Ocean trade is still a coveted arena of competition between world  powers!






Ancient rain and flood patterns mix with modern society to create an interesting scene,

reminding us that travelers still have to negociate the Monsoon season





With four-five billion people living along the coastlines of Asia and Africa, much trash is just thrown out into the sea

During the postclassical period, greater India had 105 million people, and today the number is 20x that figure




Much of it winds up in the middle of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in places called gyres



Next: Postclassical Asia People



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